A Seminar Report on ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL .A Seminar Report on ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL SYSTEM...
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A Seminar Report on
ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROLSYSTEM
Prepared by : Harshad S. Patel
Roll No. : 130420704010
Class : ME (Electronics & Communication)
Semester : III
Year : 2014-15
Guided by : Prof. Vandana Shah
Electronics & Communication EngineeringSarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology
Dr R.K. Desai Road, Athwalines, Surat - 395001, India
ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL SYSTEM
A Seminar Report
Harshad S. Patel
in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree
MASTER OF ENGINEERINGIN
ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATIONENGINEERING
SARVAJANIK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING &TECHNOLOGY
DR.R.K. DESAI ROAD,ATHWALINES SURAT-395001,INDIA
Sarvajanik College ofEngineering & Technology
Dr R.K. Desai Road, Athwalines, Surat - 395001,
Electronics & Communication Engineering
C ERTI FI CATE
This is to certify that the Seminar report entitled AdaptiveCruise Control System is prepared & presented by HarshadS. Pate l Enrollment No 130420704010 of M.E.II Sem. IIIElectronics & Communication Engineering during year 20 1 3-2014 . His work is satisfactory.
Signature of Guide Head ofDepartment
Electronics & comm. Engineering
Signature of Jury Members
Cruise control is a new technological development which incorporates a factor of
comfort in driving. Safety is only a small benefit of this system. In short, cruise control
can be said to be a system which uses the principles of radar to determine the distances
between two consecutive moving vehicles in which either one or both of them is
incorporated with this system. The electromagnetic rays from radar system are sensed by
sensors in the vehicle which in turn rely commands to the throttle and brakes of the
vehicle to perform according to the adjacent vehicles distance. So cruise control is a
system which provides comfort to drivers during long monotonous drives.
I take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide Prof. VandanaShah for her guidance, help, suggestion and supporting me to clear my doubts during thepreparation of seminar and inspiring me to put my best efforts.
I will be falling in my duty, if I dont offer my gratitude towards faculty members ofelectronics & communication department who helped me time to time to understand mytopic and the various related areas.
Last but not least, Acknowledgement will not be over without mentioning a word ofthanks to all my friends & colleagues who helped me directly or indirectly in all the waythrough my seminar preparation.
Harshad S. Patel
2. WHAT IS CRUISE CONTROL...
2.1 HOW TO SET CRUISE CONTROL..
3. ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL
4. PARTS AND WORKING..
4.2 STEREO AMERA..
4.3 IMAGE PROCESSOR...
4.4 FUSION PROCESSOR......
4.5 HEADWAY CONTROL UNIT.....
5. FUTURE ASPECTS....
6. DANGERS OF CRUISE CONTROL.
Every minute, on average, at least one person dies in a crash. If you read this articlefrom start to finish 30 or more deaths will have occurred across the globe by the time youare done. Auto accidents will also injure at least 10 million people this year, two or threemillion of them seriously. All told, the hospital bills, damaged property and other costswill add up to 1 - 3 % of the worlds gross domestic product according to the Paris basedorganization for economic cooperation and development. And, of course, the losses thatmatter most is not even captured by these statistics, because there is no way to put a dollarvalue on them.
Engineers have been chipping away at this staggering numbers for a long time. Manysafety innovations in the areas of banking systems, air bags, seat belts, body structures,steering and suspension have had a beneficial effect. Air bags and seat belts save tens ofthousands of people a year by preventing their head from crashing into the windshield.Supercomputers now let designers create car frames and bodies that protect the peopleinside by absorbing much of energy of crash as possible. As a result, number of fatalitiesper million kilometres of vehicle travel has decreased. But the ultimate solution and theonly thing that will save far more lives, limbs and money are to keep out cars fromsmashing into each other in the first place.
That is exactly what engineers in the United States, Europe and Japan are trying to do.They are applying advanced microprocessors, radars, high-speed ICs and signal-processing chips and algorithms in R&D programs that mark an about face in theautomotive industry: from safety systems that kick in after an accident occurs, attemptingto minimize injury and damage, to ones that prevent collisions altogether.
The first collision avoidance features are already on the road, as pricey cruise controloptions on a small group of luxury cars. Over the next few years, these systems will growmore capable and more widely available, until they become standard equipment on luxuryvehicles. Meanwhile, researchers will be bringing the first cooperative systems to market.This will take active safety technology to the next level, enabling vehicles tocommunicate and coordinate responses to avoid collisions. Note that to avoid liabilityclaims in the event of cars equipped with cruise control systems, manufacturers of thesesystems and the car companies that use them are careful not to refer them as safetydevices. Instead they are being marketed as driver aids, mere convenience made possibleby latest innovative technology.
2.WHAT IS CRUISE CONTROL
Cruise control is a system, which automatically controls the speed of an
automobile. The driver sets the speed and the system will take over the throttle of the car
to maintain the speed. The system is thereby improving driver comfort in steady traffic
conditions. In congested traffic conditions where speeds vary widely these systems are no
Most cruise control systems dont allow the use of cruise control below a certain
speed. The use of cruise control would be significantly increased if the vehicle speed
could automatically adapt to the traffic flow. This feature can be handy for long drives
along sparsely populated roads and usually results in better fuel efficiency. It is also
known in some places as poor mans radar detector, as by cruise control, a driver who
otherwise tends to unconsciously increase speed over the course of a highway journey
may avoid a speeding ticket.
Blind inventor and mechanical engineer Ralph teeter invented cruise control in
1945. His idea was born out of the frustration of riding in a car driven by his lawyer, who
kept speeding up and slowing down as he talked. The Chrysler Corporation on the 1958
Chrysler imperial introduced first car with cruise control systems.
2.1 HOW TO SET CRUISE CONTROL
In modern designs, the cruise control may or may not need to be turned on before
use in some designs it is always on but not always enabled. Most designs have a
separate on switch, as well as set, resume, accelerate and coast functions. The system is
operated with controls easily within the drivers reach, usually with two or more buttons
on the steering wheel or on the windshield wiper or turn signal stalk. The cruise switches
of a latest Ford car are shown in the figure below.
Driver should bring the car to speed manually and then use a button to set cruise
control to the current speed. Most systems do not allow the use of cruise control below a
certain speed to discourage use in city driving. The car will maintain that speed by
actuating the throttle. Most systems can be turned off both explicitly or automatically,
when the driver hits the brake or clutch. When the cruise control is in effect, the throttle
can still be used to accelerate the car, although the car will then slow down until it reaches
the previously set speed.
Fig 3.2 Control Buttons
Now let us see the individual functions of each cruise switches in detail.
1. The on and off buttons really dont do much. Some cruise controls dont have
these buttons; instead, they turn off when the driver hits the brakes, and turn on
when the driver hits the set button.
2. The set/accelerate button tells the car to maintain the speed you are currently
driving. If you hit the set button at 45 km/hr, the car will maintain your speed at 45
km/hr. holding down the set/accelerate button will make the car accelerate. On
most cars, tapping it once will make the car go 1 km/hr faster.
3. If recently disengaged the cruise control by hitting the brake or clutch pedal,
hitting the resume button will command the car to accelerate back to the most
recent speed setting.
4. Holding down the coast button will cause the car to decelerate, just as if you took
your foot co