A Non-Technical, Example-Driven Introduction to Linked Data

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How Linked Data and Semantic Web Technologies Foster the Publication, Retrieval, Reuse, and Integration of Data. A Non-Technical, Example-Driven Introduction to Linked Data for the UCSB Library.

Transcript of A Non-Technical, Example-Driven Introduction to Linked Data

  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) HOW LINKED DATA AND SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES FOSTER THE PUBLICATION, RETRIEVAL, REUSE, AND INTEGRATION OF DATA A NON-TECHNICAL, EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION Krzysztof Janowicz, Grant McKenzie, and Yingjie Hu STKO Lab University of California, Santa Barbara, USA UCSB Library, April 2014 AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) WHAT IS LINKED DATA? LINKING DATA AS NEXT-GENERATION INFRASTRUCTURE Data Silos Web services Databases Web pages hinder ad-hoc combination enforce data models limit re-usability AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) FROM DOCUMENTS TO DATA FROM LINKED DOCUMENTS TO LINKED DATA Use Uniform Resource Identiers (URI) to identify entities, link them to other entities, encode information about these entities using the machine-understandable RDF, and make them available on the Web. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) FROM DOCUMENTS TO DATA BERNERS-LEES LINKED DATA PRINCIPLES AND STARS Four Rules for Linked Data Use URIs as names for things Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL) Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things. Is your Linked Open Data 5 Star? Available on the web (whatever format) but with an open licence, to be Open Data Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. excel instead of image scan of a table) as (2) plus non-proprietary format (e.g. CSV instead of excel) All the above plus, Use open standards from W3C (RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff All the above, plus: Link your data to other peoples data to provide context See http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) EXPLORING LINKED DATA EXPLORING LINKED DATA RELATED TO SANTA BARBARA Follow-your-nose: Explore information related to Santa Barbara using Linked Data (DBpedia). AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) EXPLORING LINKED DATA FINDING RELATIONS BETWEEN PLACES Finding Relations between places (via people, events, objects,...). AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) EXPLORING LINKED DATA REASONATOR: BROWSE WIKIDATA Wikidata is a free knowledge base that can be read and edited by humans and machines alike. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) EXPLORING LINKED DATA SEARCHING THE WEB OF DOCUMENTS This is still how most (Web) search works today. 20 million results, no hit. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) EXPLORING LINKED DATA SEARCHING THE WEB OF (LINKED) DATA Populated places have a population, are located, occupy a certain area,... AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) EXPLORING LINKED DATA GOOGLES KNOWLEDGE GRAPH AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) EXPLORING LINKED DATA GOOGLES KNOWLEDGE GRAPH Googles Web search is changing towards query answering. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) QUERYING AND INTEGRATION OF LINKED DATA THE GLOBAL GRAPH OF LINKED DATA The examples before involved only one data set, but there is much more... AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) QUERYING AND INTEGRATION OF LINKED DATA THE GLOBAL GRAPH OF LINKED DATA AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) QUERYING AND INTEGRATION OF LINKED DATA INTEGRATION AND QUERY FEDERATION Integration by searching equivalent classes or/and same features in data sets. This requires ontology matching and alignment. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) ONTOLOGIES IN COMPUTER/INFORMATION SCIENCE ONTOLOGIES IN COMPUTER/INFORMATION SCIENCE An ontology is an explicit specication of a conceptualization used to achieve a shared understanding of a particular domain of interest. (adopted from Gruber (1993)) AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES An entity is an individual (real world) object. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES A concept/class is a (mental) template used for grouping entities. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES A category is the set of entities grouped using a particular concept. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) SUBSUMPTION AND SIMILARITY SUBSUMPTION Concepts can be organized within hierarchical structures. [this subClassOf relation is transitive] AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) SUBSUMPTION AND SIMILARITY SIMILARITY Some concepts (and entities) are more similar than others. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) ONTOLOGY LANGUAGES UNDER THE HOOD OF A MAP LEGEND ONTOLOGY NC = {LegendItem, Symbol, Label, FeatureType} (1) NR = {consistsOf, isLabelFor, isLabelOf, SymbolizedBy} (2) N. (3) LegendItem consistsOf.Symbol consistsOf.LegendItem (4) Label SymbolizedBy.Symbol SymbolizedBy.Symbol (5) 1isLabelFor. (6) 1isLabelOf. (7) 1SymbolizedBy. (8) Label isLabelFor.FeatureType (9) Label Symbol (also for Symbol, Label, FeatureType, LegendItem) (10) SymbolizedBy isLabelFor depictedBy (11) consistsOf Legend (12) . . . (13) AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY WHY NOT JUST STANDARDIZE MEANING? (CITY OR TOWN?) AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY WHY NOT JUST STANDARDIZE MEANING? (CITY OR TOWN?) California: City Town Utah: Town < (population, 1000) Pennsylvania: Town {Bloomsburg} AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY MEANINGFUL LINKS Unfortunately, our data sources use exactly the same terminology (e.g., connection) to talk about totally different and contradicting facts (e.g., separation) While we can still syntactically integrate and reuse information, the results may be misleading or even meaningless We need heterogeneity preserving semantic interoperability methods AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  • LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY MEANINGFUL LINKS Unfortunately, our data sources use exactly the same terminology (e.g., connection) to talk about totally different and contradicting facts (e.g., separation) While we can still syntactically integrate and reuse information, the results may be misleading or even meaningless We need heterogeneity preserving semantic interoperability methods AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU