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A Future Regulatory Frameworkfor co2 Emissions of Shipping inthe Mediterranean Areaalexander m . goul i e lmos, konstant inosv. g i z i ak i s, and anasta s i a chr i stodoulouUniversity of Piraeus, Greece
th i s pa per tr i ed to fi gure out what will be the regulatoryframework for co2 emissions from ships in the Mediterranean area,both on efforts from eu and imo. It is certain, indeed, that a fewother areas have been regulated already, but co2 emissions in theMediterranean area are above 30% of total maritime emissions in theeu27. The eu under the Kyoto protocol 1997 is committed to reduceits ghg emissions by 8% by 2012 vis--vis 1990. The Mediterraneanarea follows the worldwide pattern which is that human activitiesof all kinds (industrial, recreational, residential) are found near thecoast. The Mediterranean area due to its littoral states is ex-pected to advance further in trade and thus climatic conditions arelikely to get worse. This paper presents first the regulatory frame-work for the reduction of ghg emissions from ships analyzing thefour regulation systems. The Mediterranean, due to its large portshosting mother ships soon of 16000 teu is an area for ships to man-ifest their economies of scale and economies of density, being also amain importing area. Thus the paper made the working hypothesisthat the environmental protection must start from ports includinglittoral states. As shown, the Mediterranean area must be preparedfor the ships destined for it to be banned, unless more energy effi-cient ships are built under incentives (a global levy scheme on marinebunkers) and indicators like e eo i/e ed i in a Maritime emissiontrading scheme.
i ntroduct ionDuring the last 5 years, there has been growing international concernabout maritime air emissions. This concern can be attributed to thefact that the contribution of these emissions to global anthropogenic
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emissions has significantly increased and is expected to continue risingin future, if no abatement measures are taken now.
In order to offset the negative effect of shipping on the environ-ment, a regulatory policy framework has already been adopted formaritime emissions, but only for those which are classified as localor regional pollutants. These are only so2 and nox. An importantstep for the reduction of so2 emissions from ships was the adoptionby the contracting nations of the revised Annex v i of marpol 73/78drafted by the International Maritime Organization (imo 2008c). Butthis covers only some environmentally sensitive areas such as the BalticSea and North Sea, which are designated Sulphur Emission ControlAreas or s ecas. Within these areas, the ships are obliged to use fueloil with low sulphur content or to use so2 scrubbers with equivalentemissions reduction.
The effectiveness of this specific measure has already been evi-dent, as the contribution of so2 emissions from ships in the s e casin the European region has decreased, in contrast to the Mediter-ranean Sea which has not been designated a s eca, although we believeit should be.
Although the international and European communities have madesome progress as far as the reduction of local and regional air pollu-tants from ships is concerned, there is a complete lack of any regula-tion for maritime co2 emissions, in spite of the belief that these have aglobal impact on climate change. International Aviation and Shippingare the only greenhouse-gas-emitting sectors which are not covered bythe Kyoto Protocol (unfccc 1998) or the Copenhagen Accord (un -fccc 2009).
Moreover, these sectors remain unreported due to lack of reliableemission data and lack of an agreed approach for defining responsi-bility by country (unfccc 2005).
It should also be noted that shipping is the most energy-efficientand environmentally-friendly mode of transport, as it carries as muchas 90% of world trade by volume but accounts only for 10% of trans-port sector emissions. Nevertheless, for a number of reasons set outbelow, we estimate that shipping will be regulated sooner or laterfor air emissions worldwide, mainly due to: (1) the growing concern
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A Future Regulatory Framework for co2 Emissions
of the international community about the deep reduction of globalghg/Green house gas emissions (unfccc 2009), (2) the fact thatthe contribution of shipping to global ghg emissions has increased,mainly as a result of the lack of regulation of its ghg emissions, and(3) the growth of the international fleet, at least until the end of 2008.We believe that shipping cannot be left out of future regional or in-ternational conventions for the reduction of maritime ghg emissionsfor much longer (Friedrich et al. 2007).
Responsibility for the regulation of ghg emissions from shippingwas given to the International Maritime Organization (imo) and tothe Marine Environment Protection Committee (mepc). These bod-ies developed a package of interim and voluntary technical and oper-ational measures to offset ghg emissions from shipping, and also in-troduced market-based instruments to provide incentives for the ship-ping industry to comply with these measures (imo 2003; imo 2009b).
A significant part of the work of the mepc for the reduction ofmaritime ghg emissions was the development of some fundamentalprinciples. These were destined to serve as the basis for a coherent anda comprehensive framework for the regulation of ghg emissions fromships to be introduced in the future by the imo (2008b). The globaleffect of co2 emissions on climate change, as well as the internationalcharacter of shipping, indicates that the regulatory framework for theabatement of maritime co2 emissions must be implemented globally.This means that sooner or later regulation will directly influence mar-itime transport in the Mediterranean Area, which is the focus of theresearch reported in this paper.
a im of the paper
This paper examines (a) how a regulatory framework for the reductionof co2 emissions from shipping could be developed based on thefundamental principles of the imo and (b) the ways in which thisframework would influence maritime transport flows and logistics net-works in an environmentally sensitive area such as the MediterraneanSea, which is surrounded by many coastal nations on three continents.Our interest has been triggered by the fact that the annual co2 emis-sions from shipping in the Mediterranean area were 65 million tons
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(Concawe 2007). This represents more than 30% of the total maritimeco2 emissions in the eu27. In addition, we must pay attention to thegeographical and commercial features of this specific area, which makethe Mediterranean a particularly interesting region for the investiga-tion of future trends with respect to our international good, namelythe environment.
the geograph ical and commerc ia lcharacter i st i c s o f the med i terranean areaIntroduction
The most important step, we believe, for a stabilization of ghg con-centrations in the atmosphere, and at a level that would prevent dan-gerous anthropogenic interference with the climatic system, is the im-plementation of the Kyoto Protocol (unfccc 1998). This can bedone through the United Nations Framework Convention on ClimateChange (unfccc), which sets binding targets and mandatory limitson greenhouse gas emissions (ghg) not only for the 37 industrializedcountries, but also for the European community as a whole.
Under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Union has made a com-mitment to reduce its ghg emissions by 8% by the year 2012 com-pared with 1990. Although, by 2005 there had been a decrease of 7.9%in the total ghg emissions in European Union, over the same periodemissions from the transport sector increased by 26%. This repre-sented 22% of the total ghg emissions of the European Union (Eu-ropean Environment Agency 2008).
We have seen that the increased transport volumes have resultedin the growth of ghg emissions, as this has also required increasedenergy use in the transport sector. This is a growth, however, whichprevents the European Union from achieving its Kyoto Protocol com-mitment. In order to reduce ghg emissions from the transport sectorin the European Union, additional measures need to be taken, we be-lieve.
These additional measures should focus on the coordinationand optimal use of different modes of transport according to theirenergy-efficiency, but also concentrate on improvements in the energy-efficiency of each mode of transport.
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A Future Regulatory Framework for co2 Emissions
Mediterranean Geography/CharacteristicsAs is well known, the geographical position of the European Unionprovides an advantage for the further development of maritime trans-port flows, as it has a coastline in excess of 67,000 kilometres and anetwork of inland waterways of about 25,000 km, of which 12,000 kmare part of the combined transport road network. These conditionsfacilitate the transport of certain cargoes (mainly wet and dry bulk) bycoastal and sea-river vessels (Blonk 1994). The fact that 60% to 70%of the industrial and production centres of the European Union arelocated within 150 to 200 kilometres from the coast provides a com-mercial advantage for the further use of maritime transportation in theform of short sea shipping and river transportation.
As mentioned above, maritime transport is by far the most energy-efficient mode of transport, as the transportation of goods and peopleby sea has lower carbon emissions per ton/passenger-kilometre thanother modes of transport.
In spite of this, the increased contribution of shipping to globalghg emissions duri