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    A Level Science Applications

    Support Booklet: Chemistry

    http://www.xtremepapers.net

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    A Level Science Applications Support Booklet: Chemistry

    Contents

    INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................1 1 THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE .............................................................................................................2

    1.1 Introduction................................................................................................................................21.2 Protein chemistry.......................................................................................................................6

    Proteins the workhorses of life.....................................................................................................6Amino acids the building blocks of proteins .................................................................................7Structure the key to protein function ..........................................................................................10Enzymes Natures catalysts.......................................................................................................16

    1.3 Genetic information..................................................................................................................27DNA the source of heredity........................................................................................................27The structure of DNA ....................................................................................................................29The structure of RNA ....................................................................................................................31Gene expression...........................................................................................................................32Mutations.......................................................................................................................................38

    1.4 ATP, Lifes energy currency.....................................................................................................43

    1.5 Metals in biological systems ....................................................................................................45Iron and the haem proteins ...........................................................................................................45Zinc as an enzyme cofactor ..........................................................................................................46Sodium and potassium ion transfer across cell membranes.........................................................46Toxic trace metals in the environment ..........................................................................................47Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................48

    1.6 Revision self-assessment questions........................................................................................491.7 Key definitions .........................................................................................................................511.8 Resources................................................................................................................................54

    2 APPLICATIONS OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY..........................................................................552.1 Introduction..............................................................................................................................55

    Astrobiology ..................................................................................................................................552.2 Determining structures.............................................................................................................56

    Mass Spectrometry .......................................................................................................................56Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.....................................................................62

    2.3 Separating and identifying substances....................................................................................80The partition of a solute between two immiscible solvents ...........................................................80Chromatography ...........................................................................................................................83Gas/liquid chromatography (GLC) ................................................................................................87High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ........................................................................89Applications of Chromatography in Analysis.................................................................................90Electrophoresis .............................................................................................................................91Factors affecting mobility ..............................................................................................................93

    Some medical applications of gel electrophoresis ........................................................................94Other types of electrophoresis ......................................................................................................94Genetic fingerprinting....................................................................................................................95

    2.4 Examples of applications of analytical chemistry...................................................................100Three methods of dating using mass spectrometry ....................................................................100The use of combined GLC-MS in environmental monitoring ......................................................101

    2.5 Key definitions .......................................................................................................................1042.6 Resource list..........................................................................................................................107

    3 MATERIALS AND DESIGN..........................................................................................................1083.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................1083.2 Medicinal chemistry and drug delivery...................................................................................111

    Designing drugs ..........................................................................................................................111Delivering drugs ..........................................................................................................................113

    3.3 Properties of polymers...........................................................................................................116Addition polymerisation...............................................................................................................116

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    Condensation polymerisation......................................................................................................116Spider Silk...................................................................................................................................117Plastics that conduct electricity or emit light................................................................................118

    3.4 Nanotechnology.....................................................................................................................122What is nanotechnology?............................................................................................................122Buckyballs a new allotrope of carbon.......................................................................................123

    Quantum dots..............................................................................................................................126

    Promise and possible problems of nanotechnology....................................................................1273.5 Environment and energy........................................................................................................129

    Chemistry to overcome environmental problems........................................................................129Trouble in the stratosphere replacing CFCs ............................................................................130Green Chemistry and Sustainability............................................................................................131Chemistry for energy...................................................................................................................134

    3.6 Key definitions .......................................................................................................................1383.7 Resources..............................................................................................................................139

    Nanotechnology worksheet.........................................................................................................1404 SPECIMEN EXAMINATION QUESTIONS...................................................................................144

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    Acknowledgements