8th Grade WAD Words 2007 (FINAL for 8th Grade Only)

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Transcript of 8th Grade WAD Words 2007 (FINAL for 8th Grade Only)

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    7th Grade WAD----3rd Trimester

    2006-07

    Week 34:

    Buoyant: tending to float on a liquid,or rise in air or gas.

    Upthrust: the upward force that aliquid or a gas exerts on a body floatingin it.

    Buoyant force: the upward force onan object immersed in a fluid, causing

    it to float or at least to appear tobecome lighter.

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    Archimedes: (Greek: ), aGreek mathematician, astronomer,philosopher, physicist and engineer. Hewas killed by a Roman soldier during

    the sack of the city of Syracuse,despite orders from the Roman general,Marcellus, that he was not to beharmed. 287-212 BC

    Archimedes Principle: When a bodyis completely or partially immersed in afluid it experiences an upthrust, or anapparent loss in weight, which is equalto the weight of fluid displaced.

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    Week 33:Qualitative: observations that do notinvolve measurements and numbers("My brother is shorter than my sister,"is a qualitative observation.)

    Quantitative: observations thatinvolve measurements and numbers("My brother is 30cm shorter than my

    sister," is a quantitative observation.)

    Density: is a measure of mass per unitof volume. symbol: (Greek: rho)

    g/ml : abbreviation for grams milliliters this is the unit that densityis commonly measured in. (Note: unitof mass unit of volume)

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    Week 32:

    Meniscus:1.The curved surface of a liquid in a

    narrow-diameter glass tube.

    2. Crescent shaped cartilage, usually pertaining to the knee joint; alsoknown as "cartilage." There are two menisci in the knee, medial andlateral. These work to absorb weight within the knee and providestability.

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    Beaker:

    1. A beaker is a type of laboratoryglassware which consists of acylindrical cup with a notch on the topto allow for the pouring of liquids.

    2. Dr. Bunsen Honeydew is a character from TheMuppet Show, performed by Dave Goelz. The

    muppet was a bald, bespectacled, lab-coatedscientist who would do periodic science segmentsfrom "Muppet Labs...where the future is being madetoday". The face of the muppet had no eyes, onlyglasses, and his experiments always went awry,usually causing great harm to his long-sufferingassistant Beaker (Richard Hunt), a nearly mute

    muppet with shocked red hair.

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    Week 31:

    Volume: the amount of 3-dimensionalspace occupied by an object.(Measured in liters or cubic meters).

    graduated cylinder: laboratoryglassware that is used for measuring

    the volumes of liquids in a quantitativemanner.

    water displacement: occurs when anobject is immersed in a fluid, pushing

    the fluid out of the way and taking itsplace.

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    displacement vessel(be able to draw a picture of this).

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    Week 30:Weight: The downward force of gravityon an object that has mass. (Mass xGravity = Weight), or W=mg

    Inertia: the tendency of an object toresist change in its motion. Mass is themeasurement of inertia.

    Law of Inertia: Newtons First Law of

    Motion: An object in motion will tend tostay in motion and an object at rest willtend to stay at rest unless acted uponby a force.

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    triple beam balance: scientific tool usedto determine the mass of an object.

    (Be able to draw a picture of what itlooks like.)

    Week 29:Matter: anything that has massand volume.

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    Mass: a measure of the totalamount of matter in an object.

    Gram: a basic unit of mass in theSI system of measurements.

    Gravity: The attractive effect thatany massive object has on all other

    massive objects. The greater themass of the object, the stronger itsgravitational pull.

    Metric Prefixes:Study Hint: Make a chart for the prefixes.

    SI: The International System of Unitsfrom the French language name LeSystme international d'units) is the

    modern form of the metric system.Tera: (symbol: T) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1012, or 1 000 000 000 (1 trillion).

    Giga: (symbol: G) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 109, or1,000,000,000 (1 billion).

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    Mega: (symbol M) is an SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of106, 1,000,000 (one million).

    Kilo: (symbol: k) is the SI prefix denoting a factor of 103 (1000)

    * one kilogram is 1000 grams* one kilometre is 1000 metres* one kilowatt is 1000 watts* one kilojoule is 1000 joules

    Hecto: (symbol h) is a SI prefix denoting a factor of 102 (100).

    Deka: (symbol da) is a SI prefix denoting a factor of 101 (10)

    Base Unit: the unit if measurement with no prefix denoting a factor of 100 (1)

    Remember: Anything raised to the 0 power = 1.

    Deci-(symbol d) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10 -1

    (1/10).

    Centi- (symbol c) is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10 -2, or 1/100.

    Milli- (symbol m) is a prefix in the SI and other systems of units denoting afactor of 10-3, or 1/1,000.

    Micro- is a prefix in the SI system denoting a factor of 10 -6 (one millionth). Thesymbol for it is the micro sign (), the Greek letter mu.

    Nano- is a prefix (symbol n) in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10 -9.(one billionth)

    Week 24:Application of the WAD Words

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    The goal thus far with the WAD words wasfor you to memorize their meaning. Thenext step is to get you to understand howscientists use them. For the rest of thetrimester, we will practice using the wordsin different contexts, so that you can domore than know the meaning of thewords; you will be able to use them. Thefinal exam at the end of the trimester willhave a WAD application section, which wewill now review for, one day at a time.

    1. Can you give an example thatdemonstrates the difference betweenan observation and an inference?

    2. What are some fundamental beliefsthat scientists have about thenature of scientific thought?

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    3. Scientific knowledge is tentative. Can you give one example fromsomething that we did or studied in class that demonstrates this aspectof the nature of science?

    4. Scientific knowledge is subjective. Can you give one example from

    something that we did or studied in class that demonstrates this aspectof the nature of science?

    5. Scientific knowledge is empirically based. Can you give one examplefrom something that we did or studied in class that demonstrates thisaspect of the nature of science?

    7th

    Grade WAD----2nd

    Trimester 2006-07

    Week 23:

    Galelio: (1609) He was the first person tomake and use a telescope to observe space. Hediscovered four moons of Jupiter, which showedthat not all celestial objects go around Earth.He favored the idea of a sun centered universe.(1)

    Dr. Mae Jemison: Astronaut who went intoorbit aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor,

    September 12, 1992. She was the first non-white woman to go into space.

    Dr. Sally Ride: In 1983, she became the firstAmerican woman in space on the shuttleChallenger (STS-7).

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    Week 22:

    Ptolemy: (140 A.D.) Greek astronomerwho thought the earth was the centerof the universe. (2)

    Copernicus: (1543) A Polish astronomer whofirst postulated that the sun is the center of theuniverse. (1)

    Tycho Brahe: (1601 A.D) a Danishastronomer who believed that the earth wasthe center of the universe. He was the firstperson to collect large amount of data on thelocations of the stars. (3)

    Johannes Kepler: (1609) Discovered the

    scientific law (Keplers Law of Planetary Motion)that all planets revolve around the sun inelliptical orbits and that the sun is not in theexact center of the orbits. (He analyzed Brahesdata to come up with this law) (2)

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    Week 21:

    Astrolabe: An astrolabe is an instrumentthat was used to determine the altitude ofobjects (like the sun) in the sky. It was firstused around 200 BC by astronomers inGreece.

    Azimuth: A direction in terms of a 360 compass.North is at 0. East is at 90. South is at 180. West is at 270.

    Altitude:The vertical angular distance of a point in the skyabove the horizon. Altitude is measured positively from the horizon tothe zenith, from 0 to 90 degrees.

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    Zenith:The point in the sky directly above the observer. Thehighest point.

    Horizon:The line where the sky and the ground seem to meet.

    Week 20:

    Equinox: either of the two days whenthe periods of daylight and darknessare of equal length throughout theentire world. The vernal equinox isusually March 21; the autumnal

    equinox is usually September 23.

    Longitude: