2 Week The What, Why And How Of The Bible
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Transcript of 2 Week The What, Why And How Of The Bible
- 1.The What, Why and Whichof the Bible
Dr. Samuel Lamerson
2. Overview of this class
What is the Bible?
What is the Bible about?
How should one choose a translation?
3. What is the Bible?
A.It is God breathed:
All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, (2 Timothy 3:16, NKJV)
B.It is authoritative
The authority of the Holy Scripture, for which it ought to be believed and obeyed, dependeth not upon the testimony of any man or church, but wholly upon God (who is truth itself), the author thereof; and therefore it is to be believed, because it is the word of God.(WCF, I/iv, emphasis supplied).
4. What is the B ible? (cont.)
All Scripture is the word of God
Note the patter n of the NT.
When God is speaking the NT often call it Scripture:
Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. (Matthew 4:7, KJV)
This the Lord speaking in Deut. 6
5. What is the Bible?
Places where the Scripture is speaking but the NT quotes it as if it is God.
Now the Lord had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy fathers house, unto a land that I will shew thee: And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed. (Genesis 12:13, KJV)
6. What is The Bible?
Yet later in the NT the text is ascribed to the Scripture.
For the scripture saith unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might shew my power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth. (Romans 9:17, KJV)
7. What is the Bible?
Therefore we must all agree to obey the text when we understand what it means.
This understanding what it means is the difficult part for many Christians
8. 2. What is the Bible About?
In Three Words: EXILE and Redemption
Adam and Eve were exiled from the garden.
The Children of Israel were exiled from the land
All people are in exile from God until they meet Christ.
9. What is the best version to read?
I will not answer this question in the way that you would like.
I will give you some of the problems with translation and show you the strengths and weaknesses of various translations.
Keep in mind that translation is not an easy task, thus all translations differ.
10. Translation Theory
11. Translation Bloopers
Sign in a Bucharest hotel lobby: "The lift is being fixed for the next day. During that time we regret that you will be unbearable
Sign in a Jordanian tailor's shop: Because is big rush, we will execute customers in strict rotation."
Beneath a Japanese tailor's shop: "Ladies will have fits upstairs.
Sign I saw in Korea Food, Wine and Bear.
12. Translation Bloopers
13. Translation Bloopers
14. Translation Bloopers
15. Translation Bloopers
16. Translation Bloopers
17. 18. Translation Models
It is impossible not to lose something when you translate an extended text from one language to another (Carson, ILD, 58).
Usually something not in the donor textis added as well! (e.g., separate forms for we inclusive/exclusive in some languages; differing temporal reference systems, etc.)
19. Translation Models
There is always some loss in the communication process, for sources and receptors never have identical linguistic and cultural backgrounds. The translators task, however, is to keep such loss at a minimum (de Waard & Nida, FOLA, 42)
20. Translation Models
Literal (because most who use this term assume that it equals more accurate, superior, faithful, exact; besides, just what does literal mean?)
Word-for-word and phrase-for-phrase and thought-for-thought (cf. Carson, ILD, 70)
21. Translation Models
Interpretive (all translation is interpretive, even formal equivalent ones)
Every reading of a text by a finite being is an interpretation of it. translation is never a mechanical task. Translators must understand the donor text, or think they do, before rendering it into the receptor text (Carson, ILD, 72).
22. Theoretical models
Formal equivalent: a translation that seeks to translate from one language to another using the same grammatical and syntactical forms as the donor language whenever possible.
Consistent execution of formal equivalence is impossible, and if one opts for the axiom as formal as possible, one frequently ends up with a translation that actually distorts much of the meaning in the donor text (Carson, ILD, 70).
23. Theoretical models
Functional equivalent: a translation that seeks to represent adequately and accurately in good receptor-language grammar, style, and idiom that which the words and constructions in the donor language conveyed to the original recipients.
The closest natural equivalent in the receptor language, both in meaning and style (NET preface, 7 n.4)
24. Theoretical models
Dynamic equivalence: The quality of a translation in which the message of the original text has been so transported into the receptor language that the response of the receptor is essentially like that of the original receptors (Eugene Nida, The Theory and Practice of Translation, 202).
It seeks to make the same impact without regard to the form of the original language.
25. Theoretical models
Paraphrase: A simplified summary of the meaning found in the donor language. A paraphrase tells the reader what the passage means, whereas a literal translation tells what the passage says (Metzger, 148).
No translation is exclusively formal; none entirely avoids formal features (Carson, ILD, 69).
26. Range of contemporary translations
27. Cultural issues in translation
White as snow in Irian Jyra = make dirty (black people sitting around a fire and get white ash on them = dirty!)
Stand at the door and knock in some cultures implies a thief! (Only a thief knocks to see if anyone is home before robbing the house; a friend will shout, not knock.)
28. Cultural issues
Nurse a baby in Australia = hold a baby (not: breastfeed)
Heart in its biblical sense is equivalent to gall bladder in some Philippine tribes and liver in many African contexts.
Son of man in Kouykon Indian dialect of Alaska and Canada = son of any man = bastard, illegitimate sonnot an appropriate translation as a title for Jesus Christ!
29. Inclusive Language
We should not automatically assume that any agenda that seems to come through in a translation must be a translators bias.
It may well be a reflection of the Bibles agendawhich is often different from various politically-correct agendas in contemporary Western culture.
Our task is to accurately represent the original whether we like what it says or not.
30. Inclusive Language
Must distinguish between:
Gender neutral translation and
Gender neutral attempts to eliminate any reference to gender, whether of God or people (e.g., God our heavenly parent).
Inclusive language seeks to use terms that are as inclusive in the receptor language as in the donor language.
31. Inclusive Language
Legitimacy of individual choices depends on the extent to which the languages overlap.
To what extent has English changed in the last 50 years?
Has what began as a political agenda become more generally mainstream?
It doesnt matter if you like the changes, but it does matter what contemporary language means.
32. Inclusive Language
We do not have a commission to reform language or to impose grammatical preferences on our audience.
We do have a commission to communicate accurately and clearly the truth of the gospel.
33. Inclusive Language
Would you approve of missionaries going to the Philippines and insisting on changing the Tagalog language to suit their preferences when preaching the gospel?
Or would you expect that person to communicate in fluent Tagalog?
Is it helpful to offend people in your proclamation of the gospel? (Other than by the offense of the gospel itself?)
34. Inclusive Language
The contemporary flap re. the NIVs revisions was blown out of proportion by a watchdog group who allowed their agenda to blind them to genuine cultural issues.
Their reaction is understandable since they have taken as their social mission the opposition of any and all forms of the feminist agenda.
35. Inclusive Language
Contemporary English language usage has changedfor better or worse.
Our job is now (as always) is to communicate in the language of the people.
No translation should impede the understanding of Gods word.
36. Misc. issues
Purpose of a given translation:
Judge on the basis of their stated purpose. There is no one translation that is best for all purposes. Note the contrasting purposes of: GNB, NIV, NKJV.
37. Use of italics
Traditionally italics have been used to indicate supplied words, but contemporary use is to indicate emphasis.
How do you decide what words are essential and what words are optional? (A very difficult decision at times!)
38. Use of italics
The KJV, in John 1:18, has the glory of the only begotten of the Father, leaving the reader to figure out who the only begotten is. Since the context is very clear that the refere