1360_Appendix2

9
 appendix 2 Functional organization structure of a typical development project  A2.1 Successive stages The functional organization structure of a typical process development project is critically important, but is also complex and constantly evolving , depending on local and personal circumstances. For that reason, this orga- nization has been, more often than not, left to the “play of forces” or to the wisdom of the manager in charge, and the results may or may not have  been effecti ve. This appendix considers the objective demands on the organization, in order to increase its chances of success. The resources discussed in Chapters 2 and 3 are organized here in a more conventional hierarchic structure, in which every leader is responsible for four to six functions. In this regard, one should recognize the basic differences in the three main stages of the project, as these relate to the demands on the organization. 1.1 The invention and promotion stage , which may have one of two con- texts, depending on whether: It is done inside the implementing corporation, in its R&D depart- ment or new business department, on the basis of the corpora- tions already established position in the eld and of its accumu- lated know-how It is done by external promoters, prompted by published informa- tion about the potential need for such process, and possibly also  by their desire to promote sales of new technology , equipment, or services 1.2 The  process development stage, with the nancial support of a corpo- ration and under a designated project manager, until a decision is reached to build a plant Copyright © 2002 by CRC Press LLC

description

BOOK

Transcript of 1360_Appendix2

  • appendix 2

    Functional organization structure of a typical development project

    A2.1 Successive stages

    The functional organization structure of a typical process developmentproject is critically important, but is also

    complex and constantly evolving

    ,depending on local and personal circumstances. For that reason, this orga-nization has been, more often than not, left to the play of forces or tothe wisdom of the manager in charge, and the results may or may not havebeen effective.

    This appendix considers the

    objective

    demands on the organization, inorder to increase its chances of success. The resources discussed in Chapters2 and 3 are organized here in a more conventional hierarchic structure, inwhich every leader is responsible for four to six functions.

    In this regard, one should recognize the basic differences in the threemain stages of the project, as these relate to the demands on the organization.

    1.1 The

    invention and promotion stage

    , which may have one of two con-texts, depending on whether: It is done

    inside

    the implementing corporation, in its R&D depart-ment or new business department, on the basis of the corpora-tions already established position in the field and of its accumu-lated know-how

    It is done by

    external

    promoters, prompted by published informa-tion about the potential need for such process, and possibly alsoby their desire to promote sales of new technology, equipment,or services

    1.2 The

    process development stage

    , with the financial support of a corpo-ration and under a designated project manager, until a decision isreached to build a plant

    1360_frame_Apx2 Page 213 Monday, April 29, 2002 3:40 PM

    Copyright 2002 by CRC Press LLC

  • 1.3 The

    construction and running-in

    of the plant, under the project man-ager, until the responsibility is transferred to the plant manager

    A2.2 The invention and promotion stage

    See Figure A2.1.

    2.1 The inventors (there are usually two or three co-inventors) or corpo-rate R&D scientists have generally limited executive resources oftheir own, and they typically form collaborative links with promot-ers, which can take different organizational forms, depending onlocal conditions and personalities. From the working organizationspoint of view at this stage, the inventors should be controlling thefollowing functions: the literature and patent search, the processengineers, and the laboratory feasibility tests. They should also be inworking contact with the patent attorney.

    2.2 The

    promoters, or the corporate managers in charge of R&D or newbusiness

    have the function of defining a favorable implementation

    Figure A2.1

    Invention and promotion stage.

    inventors promoters

    processengineering

    consulting andcosting

    engineering

    businessconsultant

    feasibility lab.tests

    patentattorney

    negotiation and agreementwith corporation

    lawyers

    literature and patent search

    1360_frame_Apx2 Page 214 Monday, April 29, 2002 3:40 PM

    Copyright 2002 by CRC Press LLC

  • scheme, contacting the corporation at the suitable level, promotingand negotiating an agreement concerning the development program.They have to prepare the proposal in a presentable and attractiveform, on the basis of the information relayed by the inventors. Theywill be using for that purpose specialist consultants, costing engi-neers, business advisers, agents, and lawyers.

    2.3 At this stage, an exploratory

    literature and patent search

    begins usingmaterial already on file, probably performed by the inventors assis-tants in an academic library and on internet data bases, with trial-and-error and direct feedback. This exploratory work could also besubcontracted, i.e., to graduate students. Many patent attorneys arealso organized to supply such services at affordable rates. In any case,the analysis of the results from this search will require the personalattention of the inventors.

    2.4

    Preliminary feasibility tests

    are very important and are generally doneunder the direct supervision of the inventors, first, to reassure the in-ventors that they are working on a reasonably firm basis, then to supplyconcrete exploratory results to be compared to the expected/predictedresults. In addition these preliminary tests will provide observations onthe behavior of the reacting and resulting phases. In many cases, suchtests may have to repeated later, as a demonstration to the delegates ofthe prospective implementing corporation, so that special attention isoften devoted to obtain a show-case impressive format.

    2.5

    Engineering consultants

    advise the inventors and promoters of whatcan and cannot be done in the way of implementing the new process.This input can have a critical effect on the focusing of the basicfeatures of the new process. Then, the engineering consultants willprepare the

    preliminary

    process definition and flow-sheet, the basicbalances and cost estimates, and will present these in a preliminaryengineering report, in an acceptable and friendly format, whichwill be used by the promoters in their future presentations.

    2.6 The

    patent attorney

    is either a free practitioner or a full-time employeeof the organization connected to the inventors/promoters. At thisstage, he or she will advise the inventors and promoters about theprocedure and the wording of the first patent application, and file itwith the patent office. In later stages of the project, the patent attorneywill help to formulate the scientific aspects of the claims.

    2.7 There are business consultants who specialize in selling and buyingindustrial intellectual properties. They advise the inventors and pro-moters about the acceptable procedure and the criteria for selectingand contacting a prospective corporation, which may be interestedin the new development. In many cases, they also provide personalintroductions from their previous records. They will also prepare a

    preliminary

    economic and market analysis, in a conventional format,and (hopefully) with attractive bottom lines, which shall be used bythe promoters in their presentations.

    1360_frame_Apx2 Page 215 Monday, April 29, 2002 3:40 PM

    Copyright 2002 by CRC Press LLC

  • A2.3 The process development stage

    See Figure A2.2.

    3.1 The

    project manager

    is nominated by, and reports to, the corporationsrelevant manager. Apart from his executive assistants, he should indirect working contact with the inventors/promoters, and in directcontrol of the leaders of the following functions : Engineering deputy Senior process engineer Know-how management Marketing specialist Coordination with site management

    3.2 The

    inventors/promoters

    continue to participate in the projects coreteam on a consulting basis, making their basic know-how available,mainly for the experimental program. Their main daily contacts arewith the senior process engineer and with the know-how manage-ment function (see below).

    3.3 The

    engineering deputy

    of the project manager (in fact number twoon the team) manages the following functions (see Figure A2.3):

    Cost engineer

    ,

    in direct daily contact, who also handles the engi-neering files and contacts with outside suppliers

    Figure A2.2

    Process development stage I.

    project manager inventors/ promoters

    engineeringdeputy

    marketingspecialist

    corporation management and services

    coordinationwith site

    management

    seniorprocessengineer

    know-howmanagement

    see Figure A2.3 see Figure A2.4

    see Figure A2.5

    1360_frame_Apx2 Page 216 Monday, April 29, 2002 3:40 PM

    Copyright 2002 by CRC Press LLC

  • Plant operation specialist

    ,

    generally a part-time job,

    who is coordi-nating all issues related to the future plants operation, staffing,and safety procedure, and should be coordinating efforts to findacceptable solutions

    Plant safety expert

    ,

    also

    a part-time job, possibly an externalconsultant

    Economic studies and analysis

    , possibly with the participation ofanother corporate department and/or of an engineering companyand based on the input of the market specialist

    Designers and/or suppliers of major equipment

    ,

    who provide the nec-essary information before any formal bidding, and participate inpiloting.

    3.4 The

    senior process engineer , working in direct contact with the projectmanager and the inventors/promoters, and managing the followingfunctions (see Figure A2.4): Process engineers a number of full-time process engineers who

    prepare the process flow-sheets, studies of alternative options,balance spreadsheets, equipment specifications,

    correlation of ex-perimental data,

    etc.

    Figure A2.3

    Process development stage II.

    engineering deputy

    project manager

    costengineer

    equipmentdesigners/suppliers

    economicstudies and

    analysismarket specialist

    plantoperationspecialist

    plant safetyexpert

    1360_frame_Apx2 Page 217 Monday, April 29, 2002 3:40 PM

    Copyright 2002 by CRC Press LLC

  • Process modeling specialist

    who prepares and updates the math-ematical model and analyzes the results of various runs.

    R&D laboratories

    the senior process engineer also managescontracts with the R&D laboratories and coordinates the experi-mental work ordered, by supplying detailed instructions, mate-rials, and additional personnel as needed, in addition to review-ing the reports and approving the accounts.

    Pilot installations

    a similar organization relates to contracts forwork ordered with external pilot installations, except that the pro-cess engineers on the projects team are likely to participate per-sonally and closely in these tests and in the analyses of the results.

    Corrosion and materials specialist

    who coordinates the testingand collection of information required for determining the con-struction materials to be used.

    3.5 Know-how management (see Figure A2.5): most large corporationshave specialists who can fill this function on a part-time basis. In lesscomplicated cases, this function may be filled by the inventors or bythe senior process engineer. It involves a considerable amount ofpaperwork for the orderly management and up-dating of the intel-lectual propriety, in direct contact with the relevant patent attorneyand publication search specialist.

    Figure A2.4

    Process development stage III.

    senior process engineer

    project manager

    R&Dlaboratories

    pilotinstallations

    corrosion andmaterial

    specialist

    processmodelingspecialist

    inventors/promoters

    processengineers

    1360_frame_Apx2 Page 218 Monday, April 29, 2002 3:40 PM

    Copyright 2002 by CRC Press LLC

  • 3.6 The marketing specialists of the corporation who conducted the fieldtests (see Chapter 9) are expected to report back as soon as possiblewith findings and recommendations concerning the details of theproducts that should preferably be changed, or adapted, in order toget a better sales return or market share. Such feedback is also re-quired for the final economic studies, to confirm the estimated salesrevenue from the products.

    3.7 Coordination with site management: if the new plant is erected with-in a larger industrial site owned by the corporation, there should bea lot of coordination with the site management. Generally, this is timewell spent, as the help obtained is of great practical value.

    A2.4 The construction and running-in period

    All the functions described above in Section A2.3 are continuing during thisperiod, under the project manager, with some changes in emphasis and withthe following additions (see Figure A2.6):

    4.1 The

    engineering company staff

    ,

    which is doing the detailed plant designand issuing drawings and specifications for approval by the projectmanager or his delegate. This staff is generally drawn from differentdepartments in the engineering company.

    4.2 The

    construction manager

    and his staff manages all the activities re-lated to procurement, construction, equipment erection, etc., and allthe actual contractors on site. While formally under the supervisionof the project manager, the construction manager has generally awide operating authority to organize the work on the site.

    4.3. The

    new plant manager and operating staff

    ,

    who are trained to receiveand operate the plant in coordination with the existing site manage-ment (see Chapter 11).

    Figure A2.5

    Know-how management.

    know-how management

    project manager

    patentattorney

    inventors/promoters

    publicationsearch

    specialist

    1360_frame_Apx2 Page 219 Monday, April 29, 2002 3:40 PM

    Copyright 2002 by CRC Press LLC

  • 4.4. On the

    project team

    , the following tasks are emphasized

    in this period:

    The process engineers work mainly on checking and coordina-tion of the design and assisting in training and preparation forstart-up.

    Complementary R&D tests may be needed to ascertain certaindetails of the design.

    Cost engineering personnel are still fully occupied with economicstudies and analysis of alternatives (this line of work seems to benever ending).

    Financial coordination and control need to be maintained, accord-ing to the established corporate criteria, with the relevant depart-ments of the owning corporation. This becomes very importantand time-consuming, with the total amount of money spent.

    Figure A2.6

    Plant construction and running-in stage.

    corporation management and services

    project manager site management

    new plantmanager

    new plant staff

    senior processengineer

    engineeringcompany

    constructionmanager

    1360_frame_Apx2 Page 220 Monday, April 29, 2002 3:40 PM

    Copyright 2002 by CRC Press LLC

    Developing an Industrial Chemical Process, An Integrated ApproachTable of ContentsAppendix 2: Functional organization structure of a typical development projectA2.1 Successive stagesA2.2 The invention and promotion stageA2.3 The process development stageA2.4 The construction and running-in period