1305 - Agroecological Crop Management �for Increased Productivity

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Title: Agroecological Crop Management for Increased Productivity- Experience with Rice and Other Crops Date: 24 January 2013 Presented by Norman Uphoff at the 6th International Seminar on Agricultural Policies, Instituto Interamericano de Cooperation para la Agricultura (IICA), Santo Domingo, Domincan Republic

Transcript of 1305 - Agroecological Crop Management �for Increased Productivity

  • 1. Agroecological Crop Managementfor Increased Productivity -- Experience with Rice and Other Crops Norman Uphoff, SRI-RiceCornell University, USA 6th International Seminar on Agricultural Policies,Santo Domingo, 24 January 2013Instituto Interamericano de Cooperationpara la Agricultura (IICA)

2. What is called modern agriculture has been very successful over past 50 yearsThe question arises, however: under the present and foreseeable conditions of the 21st century, should we continue doingmore of the same in the agricultural sector? Even if we can do it better ?Should be we considering other strategies?Shouldnt we be developing post-modern agriculture to the extent that new ideas and methods are empirically validated? 3. Changing conditions in the 21st century willmake doing more of the same less tenable Arable land area per capita is reducing as Populations continue to grow Land area is being lost to urban spread Land degradation is increasing year by year, so Land-extensive agriculture makes less sense Water supply for agriculture is declining: Competing demands for domestic use and industry Climate change is reducing amount and reliability Pests and diseases are likely to increase In US, crop losses to insects increased from 7% to 13% at the same time that farmers insecticide use increased by 4. Future energy prices will surely be higherthan they were in the past century, raising: Production costs: fuel, fertilizer, agrochemicals Transport costs: long-distance trade more costly Climate change will become more adverse Its impact will be greatest in many LDCs Accessibility of technology remains big issue The Green Revolution by-passed most of theworlds poor & hungry; we must meet their needs Agricultural productivity gains have slowed Our technology is giving diminishing returns 5. Is there any alternative?Fortunately, there are other strategies that deserve to be considered and evaluatedThe current strategy achieved its epitome in the Green Revolution, successful in much of Asia and in various parts of Latin AmericaCore elements of the Green Revolution were: Developing improved varieties (genotypes) Applying more agrochemical (synthetic) inputs to increase soil fertility and give crop protection(improved variety = more responsive to inputs)Applying and consuming more irrigation WATER Energy-intensive & capital-intensive production 6. Agroecological alternativeRather than focus on changed/increased genetic potentials, one seeks more/better EXPRESSION ofgenetic potentials by altering crop management [We dont eat GENOTYPES -- we eat PHENOTYPES]The impact that plants growing environments haveon their productivity has long been recognized and is expressed in the equation: P = ()x G + E + [G x E]Modern agriculture has focused on G Agroecological methods focus more on E Can we achieve enough by modifying E > G ? 7. We need to use our land/soil and waterresources more productively and sustainably Can we achieve more productive PHENOTYPESfrom any genotype by altering crops growingenvironments, both above and below groundWe should consider experience with the Systemof Rice Intensification (SRI) developed in Madagascar, now known in Latin America as la Sistema Intensivo de Cultivo Arrocero (SICA) Its ideas and practices are enabling farmers in >50countries to get more productive rice plants from existing varieties -- whether local, HYV or hybrids 8. SRI/SICA management offers advantages to farmers: Reductions in:SEED requirements (plant populations greatly reduced)IRRIGATION WATER (no more flooding of fields)Need for AGROCHEMICAL INPUTS (fertilizer, sprays)COSTS OF PRODUCTION (even possibly of LABOR)Increases in:CROP YIELD (potentially very great increases)NET FARMER INCOME (more output with less cost)Resistance to many effects of CLIMATE CHANGE: Increased DROUGHT resistance Resistance to STORM damage (less crop lodging) More resistance to PESTS AND DISEASES Even some tolerance of extreme temperaturesNeed for BIOMASS, and possibly for more LABORThese methods can be adapted to many OTHERCROPS 9. Basic Concepts for SRI/SICA -- also for SCI: Establish healthy plants early (young) and carefully, making efforts to promote their root growth potential. Reduce plant density, giving each plant more room to grow, both above-ground and below-ground, to intercept more sunlight and to obtain more soil nutrients. Keep the soil well-aerated and enriched with organic matter, as much as possible, so that the soil can support better growth of roots and more abundant, diverse aerobic soil organisms. Apply water sparingly in ways that can support the growth of plant roots and of beneficial soil microbes, avoiding continuous inundation and anaerobic soil conditions. Control weeds in ways that actively aerate the soil. These practices when used together enable farmers to: Increase the size & functioning of ROOT SYSTEMS, and Enhance and diversify the populations of SOIL BIOTA. 10. NEPAL: Farmer with a rice plant grown from a single seed usingSRI methodsin Morangdistrict 11. CUBA: Farmer with two plantsof same variety (VN 2084) andsame age (52 DAS) 12. IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf 13. 300SRI CKYellow leafand sheath250 Organ dry weight(g/hill)47.9% 34.7%Panicle200150 Leaf100Sheath50Stem 0Stage IHH FH MR W R YRI H H FH M W YR R RCHINA: Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field, Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004 14. These effects are seen in a widevariety of agroecosystems: Tropical environments Mountainous regions Arid/semi-arid regionsThe scale of production ranges from: Smallholder farming systems, to Large, mechanized operations 15. INDONESIA Caritas introducedSRI methods in Acehin 2005 after tsunami devastation local yields went from2 t/ha to 8.5 t/ha Using less rice seed, less water and organic compost, farmers in Aceh have quadrupled their crop production.Rice Aplenty in Aceh, Caritas News (2009) Similar quadrupling of rice yields by poor, food-insecurehouseholds have been documented similarly in Madagascar, Cambodia, India (Madhya Pradesh) 16. AFGHANISTAN: Transplanting SRI field in Baghlan [email protected] 1600 m.a.s.l. in mountainous region with short growing season,supported by program of the Aga Khan Foundation 17. AKF technician making a field visit in Baghlan province 18. SRI SRI Conv.Year Users YieldYield2008 610.15.42009 429.35.62nd yr [7] [13.3][5.6]1st yr[35][8.7][5.5]2010104 8.8 5.62011114*10.01 5.04* Some areas could not continue orbe measured because of TalibanSRI yields were achievedwith reductions in water 19. MALI -- SRI nursery in Timbuktu region on edge ofSahara Desert with 8-day seedlings for transplanting 20. SRI transplanting inTimbuktu, Mali 21. Malian farmer in theTimbuktu regionshowing the difference between regular andSRI rice plants SRI SRIConv. Year Users Yield Yield2007-08 1 8.98 --2008-0960 9.015.492009-10 130 7.714.48with 32% less waterGao region: 7.84 t/ha Mopti region: 7.85 t/ha 22. CHINA:SRI extension/impact in Sichuan Province, 2004-10 Year2004 2005 20062007 2008 20092010TotalSRI area (ha) 1,133 7,267 57,400 117,267 204,467 252,467 301,067941,068SRI yield (kg/ha)9,1059,4358,8059,075 9,300 9,495 9,555 9,252Non-SRI yield (kg/ha)7,7407,6507,0057,3957,575 7,7107,740 7,545SRI increment (t/ha) * 1,365 1,785 1,800# 1,680 1,725 1,785 1,815#1,708SRI % yield increase * 17.6%23.3% 25.7%22.7%22.8% 23.2%23.5% 22.7%Grain increase (tons 1,547 12,971 103,320 197,008 352,705 450,653 546,436 1.66 millAddl. net income from1.28 11.64106.5205.1 450.8571.7704.3 2,051SRI use (million RMB)*(>$300 mill) * Comparison with Sichuan provincial average for paddy yield and SRI returns # Drought years: SRI yields were relatively better than with conventional methods Source: Data are from the Sichuan Provincial Department of Agriculture. 23. , INDIA: Results from Bihar State, 2007-2012 SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION -- state average yield: 2.3 t/ha200720082009 2010 2012Normal2x Drought + Complete GoodClimatic conditionsrainfall flooding rain in Sept. droughtrainfallNo. of smallholders 128 5,1468,36719,911NRArea under SRI (ha)30 544786 1,412335,000SRI yield (t/ha)10.0 7.756.5 3.22*8.08Conv. yield (t/ha) 2.7 2.362.021.66* NR SYSTEM OF WHEAT INTENSIFICATION -- state average yield: 2.4 t/ha2007-08 2008-092009-10 2011-12No. of smallholders 41525,235 48,521 NRArea under SWI (ha)16 1,200 2,536183,085SWI yield (t/ha)3.64.5 NA 5.1Conv. yield (t/ha)1.61.6 NANR* Results from measurements of yield on 74 farmers SRI and conventional fields 24. SRI methods in Bihar set a new world recordPaddy production: Biharpanchayat breaks Chinas recordNew Delhi, Mar 20:A gram panchayat in Nalanda district of Bihar hassurpassed the Chinese record of paddy production,the Union Agriculture Minister Mr Sharad Pawarinformed Parliament today. As per the reportsreceived from the state government, the yield of wetpaddy has been recorded at 22.4 tonnes per hectareand that of dry paddy at 20.16 tonnes a hectare ...,Mr Pawar said in a written reply to Lok Sabha.The record yield was achieved under demonstrationon System of Rice Intensification (SRI) which wasorganised at farmers field during kharif 2011, headded. It has surpassed the yield of 19 tonnes perhectare which was recorded earlier in China. 25. OVER 1 MILLION VIETNAMESE FARMERS BENEFIT FROM SRITuesday, October 18, 2011 20:48 (GMT +7)PANO Vietnam celebrated over amillion small-scale farmers who areembracing a technique that grows morerice with less seeds, fertilizer, water, andpesticides in an event at Thai NguyenUniversity on October 18th.The technique is called system of rice intensification or SRI for short, whichis a package of agricultural techniques for hand-planted rice that helpsfarmers reduce their costs while increasing their production. The Ministry ofAgriculture and Rural Development reported that by the summer-autumncrop