11-Panic Hardware And Electric Locks

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Transcript of 11-Panic Hardware And Electric Locks

Professional Locksmith

Study Unit 11

Panic Hardware and Electric Locks


PreviewCongratulations once more on successfully moving along in your course! Youve completed 10 information-packed units on locksmithing and are well on your way to completing your training in this exciting field. Youve completed all of the study units concerning the mechanical actions of locks and security. Now its time to begin looking at electric locks. In the past, many locksmiths stayed away from this lucrative part of the security business. This was partially due to the locksmiths traditional lack of training in electricity and electric circuits. In addition, most architects and contractors generally used to call in electricians as soon as a system required wires. Times have changed, however, and many of todays locksmiths are trained to install and troubleshoot electric locks and equipment. Most locksmiths can also install and troubleshoot the most modern electronic burglar and fire alarm systems. When you complete this study unit, youll also be able to boast of such skills. When you complete this study unit, youll be able to

Explain why electric locks are chosen over other types of locks Discuss common building and fire codes and how they relate to electric locks and panic hardware Identify common types of panic hardware and discuss typical panic hardware installation practices Describe how electric circuits operate and how to test common electric lock circuits Identify common types of electric locks, including strikes, solenoid locks, and keyless locks Discuss how electromagnetic locking systems operate and how to install and troubleshoot these systems


ContentsINTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Need for Panic Hardware and Electric Locks Panic Hardware Uses Building and Fire Codes


PANIC HARDWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Different Types of Panic Hardware Installation of Panic Hardware


BASIC ELECTRICITY FOR LOCKSMITHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Introduction What Is Electricity? Electric Circuit Symbols Electric Circuits Ohms Law Alternating and Direct Current The Electric Lock Circuit Electromagnetism Additional Electric Locking Circuit Devices Troubleshooting Electric Lock Circuits Testing AC Circuits Testing DC Circuits Testing for Short Circuits Measuring Circuit Current Electric Safety When to Call an Electrician

ELECTRIC STRIKES, LOCKS, AND KEYLESS LOCKS . . . . . . . . 47Introduction Electric Strikes Installing Electric Strikes (Door Openers) Testing and Troubleshooting the System Electric Strike Installation on Metal Doors Electric Mortise Locks Electrified Key-in-Knob Locksets Electric Keyless Locks



MAGNETIC LOCKING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67Introduction Electromagnetic Lock Installation Troubleshooting Electromagnet Lock Circuits

THE KEY TO SUCCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 LOCKING IT UP! ANSWERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 COMING ATTRACTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83


Panic Hardware and Electric LocksDo You Know . . .What is an armature? What is the difference between an intermittent-duty coil and a continuous-duty coil? What is an ohm? In these pages, youll find the answers to these and many other questions about panic hardware and electric locks.

INTRODUCTIONThe Need for Panic Hardware and Electric LocksThe need for security systems has existed for a long time. In fact, the first electrically powered security system was patented in the mid-1800s, long before the telegraph, radio, and other modern inventions. Panic hardware features a locking mechanism with a solid metal bar across the door to release the lock. This hardware is called panic hardware because the door is designed to be easy to open in the event of a panic event, such as a fire or other emergency.

Panic Hardware UsesLets begin by looking at a few possible uses of panic hardware. Figure 1 shows a floor plan for a restaurant, which is a typical environment for panic hardware. The entry doors may or may not require panic hardware, depending upon local building and fire codes. A set of doors exists at the one end of the dining room. These doors are normally a set of double doors, each containing panic hardware. A second set of double doors with panic hardware should be located in the


Panic Hardware and Electric Locks

FIGURE 1Panic hardware will be used in this situation to provide emergency exits.

kitchen area. If the tavern area of this restaurant is closed off from the dining room, a single door with panic hardware is generally located on an outside wall. In the event of a fire or other emergency, these doors can be opened easily to allow a quick exit from the building. Normally, these doors are illuminated by battery-powered emergency lighting which automatically turns on when the main electric service is lost. Panic hardware is also installed on all doors in industrial plants. If this kind of building contains closed rooms for assembly, painting, or other operations, each room normally features panic hardware on all doors. A small, sample manufacturing plant is illustrated in Figure 2. Entry doors on banks, stores, gas stations, and so on normally use one of the many types of panic hardware available. Elec-

Panic Hardware and Electric Locks


FIGURE 2Many industries use panic hardware in their doors.

tric locks provide security for homes or businesses in different ways. One major wayas with keyed locksis to control access to certain areas of a building. With keyed locks, access is provided through the use of keys. With electric locks, access is provided by remote control. The person would push a button or throw a switch to either allow or prevent access. Remember, however, that controlling access or exit within a building shouldnt be overdone. In the event of fire or other dangerous conditions, people must be able to exit the building. Electric locks are used widely by many types of businesses, hospitals, and industries. The simplest electric lock consists of a solenoid-type plunger that engages into a pocket in the


Panic Hardware and Electric Locks

door or doorjamb. More complex locks appear as mortise or key-in-knob locksets, devices that can be controlled remotely using push buttons or keyed switches. In addition, electronic keyless entry lock systems which use keypads or card readers to allow or prevent access to protected areas are also available. Still another type of electric lock is the electromagnetic lock, which consists of a powerful electromagnet and a steel plate that can hold a door against 2000 or more pounds of force. A simple electric lock application is shown in the sample gas station illustrated in Figure 3. Gas stations generally have two electric strike-type locks on the restroom doors. If a customer wants to use a restroom, the gas station attendant can simply press a button to unlock the door, without having to give out a key. The electric lock system can, therefore, prevent key theft or key duplication in this and other types of public installations. Electric keyless locks are widely used in businesses, industries, and in some residential applications. These keyless locks can be used on rear or side entries of a business to allow employees to enter and exit the building. Some homes have keyless entry systems to eliminate the need for keys.

FIGURE 3Some gas stations use electric locks instead of keyed locks for their restrooms.

Panic Hardware and Electric Locks


Most modern hotels use electric locks for entry doors and/or keyless electric locks for the actual room doors. In addition, many of the hotels interior doors may be held open using electric latch backs. Then, if a fire is sensed by the alarm system, these doors close to prevent the fire from spreading. These are but a few of the many applications for panic hardware and electric locks. As you travel around your town or city, take note of the many other applications of these systems.

Building and Fire CodesAlmost every county or municipality in North America has building and fire codes that you must take into account when installing any locks. These codes protect the owner, customer, and any fire/rescue personnel that must enter or exit the protected building. Some building and fire codes restrict the use of a lock known as a fail secure electric lock. This type of lock prevents passage through a door if the electricity supplied to the locks coil is disrupted. Obviously, this type of lock can cause many problems should fire personnel need to cut power to a building during a fire. You can review the building codes for your area at your local library. You can also obtain a copy of your areas fire codes from the National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) or from any local consultant who specializes in fire prevention. Building codes apply to the materials and techniques involved in the construction of buildings. Fire codes, although somewhat pertinent to residential construction, are geared toward business, industrial, and hotel/motel construction, as such public areas must be protected by fire alarm systems and sprinklers. Doors that separate different areas in buildings are normally held open with electric hold back latches which can be freed to close off in the event that a fire is sensed by the alarm system. Before installing panic hardware or electric locks in any business or industrial location, be sure to check the building and fire codes for your area. The codes arent always easy to locate. To find t