03 architecture of the ancient america

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Transcript of 03 architecture of the ancient america

Page 1: 03 architecture of the ancient america

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North America last major prehistoric cultural developmentAD 700Over a great area of the Southeast and the mid-

continentIntensive cultivation of corn, beans, squash,

and other cropsPolitically & culturally each large town

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Second largest ceremonial mounds Flat topped earthen structure : 35 feet highLarge religious and civic ritualsEnd of the platform : secondary flat-topped

mounds, probably the bases of a temple and residence of a priest or ruler

Between 1250 and 1600 AD : Natchez peoplePolitical center and point of distribution for goods

Animal remains, ceramic fragments, tools and the stratigraphy

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http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/185779/enlargehttp://www.examiner.com/article/the-great-emerald-mound-is-a-super-sized-legacy-of-the-natchez-people*for educational purposes only*

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Ancient indigenous city 650-1400 CE Largest archaeological

site Monks Mound

Largest structure Central of this great city Massive structure with

four terraces 10 stories tall, largest

man-made earthen mound north of mexico

Facing south : 92 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide


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Prehistoric archaelogical site1650-700 BC northeastern louissianaCore: 500 acresCenter of the site : six concentric curved earthen

ridges separated by flat corridors of earthDividing the ridges into 3 sections are 2 ramps that

slope inwardly leading to Bayou Macon.Ridge : 3 feet highApprox. diameter : 3 quarters of a mile

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Ancient burial siteLargest conical mound100 foot high bluff,

measures 877 feet in circumference

Height of 70 feet

http://2nilssons.com/Mountains%20&%20Falls/Etowah%20-%20Mound%20B.jpg*for educational purposes only*

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Largest effigy mound in the worldDoes not contain human remains 1,330 feet in length, 3 feet in heightHead of the serpent : aligned to summer

solstice sunsetCoils : point to the winter solstice sunriseAdena Indians (800 BC – AD 100)

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http://www.barry.warmkessel.com/SERPENT-6.html*for educational purposes only*

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IGLOO,IGLUEskimo HouseBlocks of hard snow

or ice, sometimes of sod, wood, or stone.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igloo#mediaviewer/File:EskimoIglooDrawing.jpeghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igloo#mediaviewer/File:Igloo_see-through_sideview_diagram.svg*for educational purposes only*

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PLANK HOUSELarge, usually

rectangular houseConstructed of

timber planksUsed by Indians &



http://ed101.bu.edu/StudentDoc/Archives/ED101fa10/cmmac/Tlingit.html*for educational purposes only*

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BRUSH SHELTERTemporary native

American dwellingsOnly used for

sleeping in.Simple wooden

frame covered with brush, cone-shaped, with one side left open, or tent-shaped, with both ends left open.


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homesBasement-like living

spaces dug from the earth, with domed mound built over the top.

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PUEBLO Communal and defensive

structure Built of adobe or stone Many-storied terraced Flat roofs of the

chambers by ladders Built on the desert floor

in valley, or cliff walls of mesas.

KIVA Large underground Used by men for religious

ceremonies & councils

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:USA_09669_Taos_Pueblo_Luca_Galuzzi_2007.jpghttp://www.crowcanyon.org/educationproducts/peoples_mesa_verde/pueblo_I_overview.asp*for educational purposes only*

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CHICKEES Stilt houses Thick posts supporting a

thatched roof and a flat wooden platform raised several feet off the ground without walls

http://access.sd25.org/curriculum/NativeAmericans/chickee.html*for educational purposes only*

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houses Made by weaving

river cane, wood, and vines into a frame, then coating the frame with plaster.

Roof was either thatched with grass or shingled with bark.


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GRASS HOUSESSouthern Plains by

tribes such as the Caddos

Made with a wooden frame bent into a beehive shape and thatched with long prairie grass

Large buildings, sometimes more than 40 feet tall

http://www.native-languages.org/images/grass2.jpghttp://pw1.netcom.com/~wandaron/Caddo.jpg*for educational purposes only*

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TEPEESTent-like American

Indian houses used by Plains tribes.

Cone-shaped wooden frame with a covering of buffalo hide

Tribe move from one place to another place, would bring their own tipi poles and hide tent along with them.

12 feet high

http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/albright3/chap7c.htm*for educational purposes only*

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LONGHOUSES Irquois tribes Similar to wigwams, pole frames and elm bark covering Longhouses are much, much larger than wigwams 150 feet long, 20 feet wide & 20 feet high Raised platforms created a second story for sleeping space Mats & wood screens divided the longhouse into separate

rooms. 60 people

http://www.nysm.nysed.gov/IroquoisVillage/images/figure1longhouselg.gif*for educational purposes only*

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WIGWAMS Algonquian Indians 8-10 feet tall Wooden frames with

woven mats & sheets of birch bark

Frame can be shaped like a dome, like a cone, or like a rectangle with an arched roof

Ropes or strings of wood are wrapped around the wigwam to hold the bark in place.

http://www.native-languages.org/houses.htm*for educational purposes only*

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MasonryPueblo or

communal dwellings

800 room a piecePre-history Anasazi

IndiansGreat social &

ceremonial centers of the American Southwest

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaco_Culture_National_Historical_Park#mediaviewer/File:Chaco_Canyon_Chetro_Ketl_great_kiva_plaza_NPS.jpg*for educational purposes only*

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Largest & Best known Great house Ancestral pueblo people AD 828 and 1126 Two sections : precisely aligned wall,

symmetrical pattern Great Kiva

Either side of wall Kivas or ceremonial structures Large central courtyard Interior living spcaes

2 acres (8,000sqm) incorporates at least 650 rooms

Tiered structure : four & five stories high

Builder’s use of core and veneer architecture & multi-story construction produced massive masonry walls

http://www.colorado.edu/Conferences/chaco/tour/images/pb2n.jpg*for educational purposes only*

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2400 BCE – 300 CE MesoAmerican civilization

took shape

Meso America 1150-400 BCE Gulf coast lowlands Jade carving Mother culture of civilization

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C. 1200-500 BCETropical lowland of the

Mexican Gulf coastsTemple-PyramidsLarge ceremonial centers

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:La_Venta_site_plan.pnghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:La_Venta_Mosaic_%28Ruben_Charles%29.jpg*for educational purposes only*

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Peruvian civilizations 1000-300 BCE Worship of the jaguar god,

characterized by excellent gold stone scuplture,elaborate gold work, and remarkable ceramic

CHAVIN DE HUANTAR Center of the chavin culture Elevated 10,000 in the

Cordillera Blanca of the NW Andes


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chav%C3%ADn_de_Huantar#mediaviewer/File:Chavin_circular_plaza_cyark.jpg*for educational purposes only*

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Pre-Indian culture N.coast of Peru 200 BCE - 700 BCE

TEMPLE OF THE SUN Mud-brick building in the Pre-

Hispanic new world Construction of the temple was

additive; new layers of brick were laid directly on top of the old; hence large quantities of bricks were required for its construction.

130 million adobe brickshttp://www.garystravels.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Temple-of-the-Sun-Teotihuacan-300x225.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Temple_of_the_Sun,_Palenque.jpg*for educational purposes only*

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TEMPLE OF THE MOON Largely ceremonial and religious function Contains burials as well Later bricks in the structure bear one of over 100 different

markings, corresponding to each group of laborers

http://jackmaryetc.com/Travel/Americas/Mexico/Images/TeoMoonTemp.jpg*for educational purposes only*

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Of or pertaining to the Americans before the voyages of Columbia

Meso American culture from 00-900 CE Development of hieroglyphic writing 3000 and 900 CE Meso American

Central Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula to Honduras and Nicaragua

Cultures excelled in astronomy and measurement of time, and shared temp pyramids and a pantheon of deities including sun, wind, and rain Gods.

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Past & present Indians of Guatemala, BelizeCreated one of American’s greatest civilizationsMajor Capitals

TikalPalenqueSeipanCopanCalakmulMotul de San Jose

Hieroglyphic writing

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1 CE – to its peak in 9 CE Character

Magnificent ceremonial centers Temple-pyramids Ritual Ball courts Spacious plazas Palaces

Sculptured façadeLower than temple-pyramidsNumerous roomsArranged around courts along with temples

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TEMPLE PYRAMIDS Most impt. Building type Flat roofs One entrance square headed

door Windowless Decorated with symbols and

glyphs connected with their gods.

Masonry facing TIKAL

Largest & earliest Mayan City Main ceremonial center Had distinct pyramids Most beautiful of all Mayan cities 7 BCE marked the western

reaches of Maya expansionhttp://www.history.com/photos/mesoamerican-pyramids/photo9

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PALENQUE Medium size site Has finest architecture, sculpture,

roof comb and bas-relief carvings TEMPLE OF INSCRIPTIONS

7c, stepped mound of earth, faced with stone Tomb of the Mayan king Pacal Temple of the top of the pyramid has carved panels describing the events of the king’s reign King Pacal’s tomb

Sarcophagus covered by a large rectangular stone slab

5 tones heavy, 12.5’ long Only tomb temple in Mexico

Central plaza Central area that is only visible Other parts of the city covered by rainforesthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_the_Inscriptions#mediaviewer/File:Palenque_temple_1.jpg

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Held power over Mexico Built : Tenochtitian; walled

compound, center of Aztec religion

Practice human sacrifice, believing it pleases the gods

Pyramidal temples were similar to Mayans

They had many gods & goddesses.

Great Temple of Tenochtitlan Twin shrines on top dedicated

to Tlaloc, the god of rain and Huitzilopochtli, the god of war.

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South America’s first great builders 15th century Buildings were irregularly shaped

stones; which skilled stonemasons ground to fit tighter perfectly

MACHU PICCHU 3,150 m above sea level Stone blocks of the stairs linking its

different levels were cut so precisely that no mortar was required

Terraced City Temple of the sun palace,

building of local stone and terraces for crop growing Machu Picchu is typical of Inca provincial city.

The building varies in shape, but most have trapezoid window and doorways.


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TIAHUANACO Precursors to the Inca

Empire As ritual & administrative

capital of a major state power for approximately 500 years

GATE OF THE SUN 1000 years old Cut from a single block of

stone 3 m high

http://blog.world-mysteries.com/science/ancient-time-keepers-archaeoastronomy/*for educational purposes only*