© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit.

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Transcript of © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit.

  • Slide 1
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit
  • Slide 2
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Key Terms Physical Fitness: attributes that allow the ability to perform physical activity Physical Fitness: attributes that allow the ability to perform physical activity Physical Activity: bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle groups Physical Activity: bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle groups Exercise: Sub-category of physical activity; structured, repetitive, and purposive towards maintaining or improving fitness levels Exercise: Sub-category of physical activity; structured, repetitive, and purposive towards maintaining or improving fitness levels
  • Slide 3
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Components of Physical Fitness Components of Physical Fitness 1. Cardiorespiratory 1. Cardiorespiratory endurance 2. Muscular 2. Muscular strength 3. Muscular 3. Muscular endurance 4. Flexibility 5. Body 5. Body composition
  • Slide 4
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Cardiorespiratory Endurance Ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to process and transport oxygen over a period of time Ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to process and transport oxygen over a period of time Continuous, repetitive movements Continuous, repetitive movements Aerobic energy production (using oxygen) Aerobic energy production (using oxygen) Examples: brisk walking, jogging, cycling Examples: brisk walking, jogging, cycling
  • Slide 5
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Muscular Fitness Ability of skeletal muscles to perform contractions; includes: Ability of skeletal muscles to perform contractions; includes: Strength: ability to perform at or near its maximum for a short period of time Strength: ability to perform at or near its maximum for a short period of time Endurance: ability for muscle group to repeatedly contract over a long period of time Endurance: ability for muscle group to repeatedly contract over a long period of time
  • Slide 6
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. How to Improve Muscular Fitness? Overload Principle Overload Principle gradually increasing the resistance can lead to increased muscular strength and endurancegradually increasing the resistance can lead to increased muscular strength and endurance
  • Slide 7
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Types of Training Mode Isometric (same measure)Isometric (same measure) Isotonic (full range of motion, progressive resistance)Isotonic (full range of motion, progressive resistance) Isokinetic (speed accommodates the movement of the exercises expensive computerized dynamometers)Isokinetic (speed accommodates the movement of the exercises expensive computerized dynamometers)
  • Slide 8
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Flexibility Ability of joints to function through an intended range of motion Ability of joints to function through an intended range of motion Failure to maintain flexibility will result in reduced motion/injury Failure to maintain flexibility will result in reduced motion/injury Two forms of stretching motions Two forms of stretching motions static holding a stretch for a period of time (recommended)static holding a stretch for a period of time (recommended) ballistic bouncing motions considered more dangerous for injury of tissuesballistic bouncing motions considered more dangerous for injury of tissues
  • Slide 9
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Body Composition Make up of the body (bone, fat, muscle, etc.) Make up of the body (bone, fat, muscle, etc.) Measuring body fat % should be included in any fitness program Measuring body fat % should be included in any fitness program Cardiovascular fitness and strength training can contribute to decreased body fat Cardiovascular fitness and strength training can contribute to decreased body fat
  • Slide 10
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Aging Physically Physical decline occurs gradually Physical decline occurs gradually Differences are individual in nature Differences are individual in nature More subtle physiological changes occur between the years of 45 64 More subtle physiological changes occur between the years of 45 64
  • Slide 11
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Medical conditions influenced by physical activity Osteoporosis (loss of calcium from bone) is more evident in middle- aged women Osteoporosis (loss of calcium from bone) is more evident in middle- aged women Osteoarthritis (wear and tear inflammation) upon weight bearing joints related to years of friction Osteoarthritis (wear and tear inflammation) upon weight bearing joints related to years of friction * Continuing to follow a fitness regimen is essential to minimizing age-related problems
  • Slide 12
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. ACSMs Recommendations for Achieving Optimal Fitness (1998) Mode of activity Mode of activity Frequency Frequency Intensity Intensity Duration Duration Resistance training Resistance training Flexibility training Flexibility training
  • Slide 13
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Fitness Program Mode of Activity Mode of Activity Continuous activityContinuous activity Using large muscle groupsUsing large muscle groups Aerobic in natureAerobic in nature Enjoyable activity selectionEnjoyable activity selection
  • Slide 14
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Frequency How Often Should One Train? 3-5 times/week (ACSM) 3-5 times/week (ACSM) More than 5 times/week will not create further improvement More than 5 times/week will not create further improvement Less than 3 times/week will not show improvement either Less than 3 times/week will not show improvement either
  • Slide 15
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Intensity of Training ACSM recommendation of 65-90% of ones maximum heart rate = Target Heart Rate (THR) ACSM recommendation of 65-90% of ones maximum heart rate = Target Heart Rate (THR) THR = (220 age x 65-90%) THR = (220 age x 65-90%) example of a 20 year old THR 220-20 = 200example of a 20 year old THR 220-20 = 200 200 x.65 = 130 bpm200 x.65 = 130 bpm 200 x.90 = 180 bpm200 x.90 = 180 bpm The level of effort to achieve cardiorespiratory fitness
  • Slide 16
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Duration of Training Length of time one needs to exercise at THR to produce a cardiorespiratory training effect Length of time one needs to exercise at THR to produce a cardiorespiratory training effect 20-60 minutes of continuous activity (ACSM) 20-60 minutes of continuous activity (ACSM) The lower the range of intensity, the longer the duration should be The lower the range of intensity, the longer the duration should be
  • Slide 17
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Resistance Training (Muscular Fitness) Strength training should be done 2-3 times/week Strength training should be done 2-3 times/week Assists with improving body composition Assists with improving body composition One set of 8-12 reps (10-15 reps for adults over 50) geared toward fatiguing major muscle groups (i.e., legs, arms, shoulders, chest, back) One set of 8-12 reps (10-15 reps for adults over 50) geared toward fatiguing major muscle groups (i.e., legs, arms, shoulders, chest, back)
  • Slide 18
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Resistance Training (Muscular Fitness), contd Isotonic or isokinetic training progress recommended Isotonic or isokinetic training progress recommended Full range of motion at a slow to moderate speed using rhythmic breathing Full range of motion at a slow to moderate speed using rhythmic breathing Multiple sets could provide greater benefits Multiple sets could provide greater benefits
  • Slide 19
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Flexibility Training ACSM recommends stretching the major muscle groups: 2-3 times/week 2-3 times/week Should be done when the body has warmed up significantly Should be done when the body has warmed up significantly Static stretching is preferred over ballistic type Static stretching is preferred over ballistic type Hold for 10-30 seconds Hold for 10-30 seconds
  • Slide 20
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 3 Parts of a Training Session 1. Warm-Up (slow gradual increased of movement 10-15 minutes leading into stretching) 2. Conditioning Workout (cardiorespiratory endurance, strength training, and flexibility regimen following ACSM guidelines) 3. Cool-Down (return the body to a resting state in 5-10 minutes, i.e., walking, stretching, etc.)
  • Slide 21
  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Exercise for Older Adults Exercises for younger adults may be inappropriate for people over aged 50 Exercises for younger adults may be inappropriate for people over aged 50 Supervision from a certified instructor may be necessary Supervision from a certified instructor may be necessary Physical exams would be recommended before beginning a program Physical exams would be recommended before beginnin